The Llanos: A Mosaic of Vast Grassland Plains and Ecological Diversity

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The Llanos: A Mosaic of Vast Grassland Plains and Ecological Diversity

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The Llanos is a vast, diverse ecoregion of grasslands and savannas in northwestern South America, situated within the borders of Colombia and Venezuela. Its flooded grasslands and savannas offer a breathtaking natural landscape of remarkable ecological biodiversity.

The Llanos: A Mosaic of Vast Grassland Plains and Ecological Diversity

Stretching across the expansive landscapes east of the Andes Mountains in northwestern South America, the Llanos, also known as Los Llanos, emerges as a vast tropical grassland plain of remarkable ecological diversity. Nestled within the borders of Colombia and Venezuela, this ecoregion of flooded grasslands and savannas paints a vivid portrait of natural grandeur. Covering approximately 570,000 square kilometers (220,000 square miles), the Llanos is an essential biome for its environmental significance and economic importance to the nations it spans.

Geographical Features and Formation

Encompassing a sprawling area that extends approximately 1,300 kilometers (800 miles), the Llanos occupies a strategic position in western Venezuela and northeastern Colombia. This extensive plain, dominated by savanna vegetation, holds a pivotal role in the economic landscapes of both Venezuela and Colombia. Geologically young, the Llanos formed less than 10,000 years ago within a vast geosyncline between the Guiana Plateau and the Andes Range.

The region's story unfolds as sedimentation filled the basin over time, drawing from the Guiana Shield and the cordilleras during the tertiary period. Subsequent subsidences molded the landscape into a combination of alluvial plains and highlands, creating today's distinctive terrain.

River Systems and Bordering Landforms

The Orinoco River, a majestic watercourse, reigns as the primary river system in the Llanos, playing a dual role as both a lifeline and a natural border between Colombia and Venezuela. The geographical boundaries of the Llanos are defined by the Andes to the north and west, the Guaviare River and the vast Amazon River Basin to the south, and the lower Orinoco River and the Guiana Highlands to the east.

Topography and Elevation

The Llanos ecoregion unfolds in a gentle northeastward curve, originating at the foothills of the Oriental Andes in Colombia and following the course of the Orinoco River to its delta at the sea. Nestled in a great depression, the Andes bound the Llanos to the west, the Venezuelan coastal range to the north, and the formidable Guiana Shield to the south. Elevations within the region vary from the low plains (Llanos Bajos) west of the Orinoco River to the high plains (Llanos Altos) below the Andes, rarely exceeding 300 meters (1,000 feet).

Climate and Seasonal Dynamics

The Llanos experience a typical savanna climate, marked by distinct wet and dry seasons and consistently high temperatures throughout the year. During the rainy season, which spans from May to October, parts of the region succumb to flooding, transforming woodlands and grasslands into temporary wetlands akin to the Pantanal in central South America. This unique flooding phenomenon defines the Llanos' landscape and shapes its extraordinary wildlife habitat.

Biodiversity and Wildlife

The Llanos is a haven for biodiversity, supporting around 70 species of water birds, including the iconic scarlet ibis. Notably, the white-bearded flycatcher finds a significant portion of its distribution within the Llanos. The seasonal flooding transforms the area into a dynamic wetland, attracting diverse wildlife and creating a mosaic of ecosystems that make the Llanos a unique and crucial ecological treasure.


The Llanos, with its vast grassland plains and ecological marvels, unfolds as a testament to the dynamic forces of nature and the intricate interplay of geological and climatic factors. Beyond its economic importance, this ecoregion beckons us to delve into its unique topography, seasonal transformations, and rich biodiversity. As we explore the Llanos, we uncover not just a landscape but a living tapestry that serves as a cradle for life, shaping the natural heritage of Colombia and Venezuela.

Map depicting the location of the Llanos ecoregion (in purple)

Map depicting the location of the Llanos ecoregion (in purple).